Ocean Networks Canada - tectonics https://www.oceannetworks.ca/article-tags/tectonics en Tsunami alert follows 8.2 quake off Chile https://www.oceannetworks.ca/tsunami-alert-follows-82-quake-chile <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden view-mode-rss"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even" property="content:encoded"><p>On April 1 at 4:46:45 PM Pacific Daylight Time (23:46:45 UTC), a <a href="http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/usc000nzvd#summary">magnitude 8.2 earthquake</a> occurred off Chile's Pacific coastline, according to the US Geological Survey. Ocean Networks Canada instrumenatation captured both ground shaking and a very small tsunami as they crossed the northeast Pacific.</p> <div class="featured-media"><a class="colorbox" href="/sites/default/files/images/pages/maps/chile_earthquake_and_aftershocks_4apr2014_1_1.jpg"><img alt="Map showing epicentre and aftershocks." src="/sites/default/files/images/pages/maps/chile_earthquake_and_aftershocks_4apr2014_1_1.jpg" /></a> <p>Map of the epicentre and 16 aftershocks along the subduction zone between the Nazsca and South American plates, 1 April 2014. Data provided by USGS and plotted using Google Earth. (Click to enlarge.)</p> </div> <p>At a depth of 20.0 km below the seabed, the shallow near-field quake struck 86 km northwest of the mining area of Iquique, hitting a region that has been rocked by numerous quakes over the past two weeks. According to the USGS, this earthquake occurred as the result of thrust faulting at shallow depths near the Chilean coast. The location and mechanism of the earthquake are consistent with slip on the primary plate boundary interface, or megathrust, between the Nazca and South America plates. In this area, the Nazca plate subducts eastward beneath the South America plate at a rate of 65 mm/yr. Subduction along the Peru-Chile Trench to the west of Chile has generated the uplift of the Andes mountain range.</p> <p>Ocean Networks Canada's seismometer in Cascadia Basin recorded the tremors as they crossed the North Pacific. Seismic data clearly indicate arrival of the initial P waves approximately 750 seconds (12.5 minutes) after the earthquake, and following S waves about 1375 seconds (23 minutes) after the earthquake struck. Bottom Pressure Recorders on the NEPTUNE Observatory also detected passage of the tsunami in real time, as it crosses our observing stations in the northeast Pacific.</p> <div class="featured-media"><a class="colorbox" href="/sites/default/files/images/pages/data/2014-04-01_ChileEQ_NC27.png"><img alt="Seismic motions from the Chile earthquake." src="/sites/default/files/images/pages/data/2014-04-01_ChileEQ_NC27.png" /></a> <p>Data from the Cascadia Basin ocean-bottom seismometer indicating arrival of P and S waves. The top trace shows East-West motions, the centre trace shows North-South motions, and the lower trace shows vertical motions. (Click to enlarge.)</p> </div> <p>A 1.9-metre tsunami was recorded at a northern Chilean port Tuesday evening. The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center issued an alert for all of Latin America's Pacific coast. There was no threat issued to the Pacific coast along North America.</p> <p>NOAA issued a forecast of tsunami heights as the energy propagated away from the source region, indicating heights up to 100 cm close to the epicenter, with rays of 2-10 cm wave heights extending across portions of the South Pacific Ocean toward New Zealand and archipelegos in the South-Central Pacific.</p> <div class="featured-media"><a href="http://wcatwc.arh.noaa.gov/events/PAAQ/2014/04/01/n3dm1y/energyn3dm1y.jpg"><img alt="Tsunami Propagation Forecast." src="/sites/default/files/images/pages/maps/energyn3dm1y_0.jpg" /></a> <p>Tsunami wave energy propagation forecast issued by the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center, showing contours of maximum wave amplitudes (in cm) associated with the 1 April 2014 earthquake.</p> </div> <p>Travel times for tsunami propagation were also modeled by the National Tsunami Warning Center, with expected arrival of a small (2-4 cm) tsunami in coastal British Columbia beginning 15 hours after the event, around 7:00 AM Pacific Daylight Time.</p> <div class="featured-media"><a href="http://wcatwc.arh.noaa.gov/events/PAAQ/2014/04/01/n3dm1y/4/WEAK53/ttvun3dm1y-04.jpg"><img alt="Tsunami travel times" src="/sites/default/files/images/pages/maps/ttvun3dm1y-04.jpg" /></a> <p>Predicted travel times for tsunami waves generated by the 1 April 2014 earthquake. Three-hour intervals are marked by the heavy white lines, intermediary hours are marked by blue shades and dashed white lines indicate half-hour boundaries. Arrival in both New Zealand and British Columbia was predicted to begin approximately 15 hours after the initial earthquake.</p> </div> <div class="featured-media"><a class="colorbox" href="/sites/default/files/images/pages/data/cascadia_basin_cork_tsunami_overview_and_onset.png"><img alt="Ground shaking and tsunami onset in seafloor pressure data from Cascadia Basin." src="/sites/default/files/images/pages/data/cascadia_basin_cork_tsunami_overview_and_onset_1_0.jpg" /></a> <p>Seafloor pressure traces from the CORK pressure instrument at Cascadia Basin, 1-2 April 2014. The upper plot shows initial passage of the earthquake just past 00 UTC (indicated by the blue lines), followed by passage of the small tsunami beginning at 14 UTC. The lower plot focuses on the tsunami onset period, 11-15:20 UTC. Wave amplitudes at this deep-water site (2660 m) were approximately 8 mm.</p> </div> <p>No stranger to seismic activity, Chile is one of the world┬╣s most earthquake-pronecountries. In 2010, a <a href="/chilean-earthquake-and-tsunami">magnitude-8.8 quake and ensuing tsunami</a> in central Chile killed more than 500 people and destroyed several hundred thousand homes along the coast.</p> </div></div></div><section class="field field-name-field-article-tags field-type-taxonomy-term-reference field-label-above view-mode-rss"><h2 class="field-label">Tags:&nbsp;</h2><ul class="field-items"><li class="field-item even"><a href="/article-tags/earthquake" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">earthquake</a></li><li class="field-item odd"><a href="/article-tags/tsunami" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">tsunami</a></li><li class="field-item even"><a href="/article-tags/chile" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">Chile</a></li><li class="field-item odd"><a href="/article-tags/tsunami-warning" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">tsunami warning</a></li><li class="field-item even"><a href="/article-tags/wave-propagation" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">wave propagation</a></li><li class="field-item odd"><a href="/article-tags/seismometer" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">seismometer</a></li><li class="field-item even"><a href="/article-tags/seismic" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">seismic</a></li><li class="field-item odd"><a href="/article-tags/seismic-data" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">Seismic Data</a></li><li class="field-item even"><a href="/article-tags/subduction" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">subduction</a></li><li class="field-item odd"><a href="/article-tags/megathrust" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">megathrust</a></li><li class="field-item even"><a href="/article-tags/tectonics" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">tectonics</a></li><li class="field-item odd"><a href="/article-tags/plate-tectonics" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">plate tectonics</a></li></ul></section><section class="field field-name-field-categories field-type-taxonomy-term-reference field-label-above view-mode-rss"><h2 class="field-label">Categories:&nbsp;</h2><ul class="field-items"><li class="field-item even"><a href="/article-categories/data-highlights" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">Data Highlights</a></li><li class="field-item odd"><a href="/article-categories/science-highlights" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">Science Highlights</a></li></ul></section><span property="dc:title" content="Tsunami alert follows 8.2 quake off Chile" class="rdf-meta"></span> Wed, 02 Apr 2014 04:25:42 +0000 dwowens@uvic.ca 3539 at https://www.oceannetworks.ca https://www.oceannetworks.ca/tsunami-alert-follows-82-quake-chile#comments Northern California Earthquake Strikes Southern Cascadia Subduction Zone https://www.oceannetworks.ca/northern-california-earthquake-strikes-southern-cascadia-subduction-zone <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden view-mode-rss"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even" property="content:encoded"><p>10 March 2014, 05:18 UTC&nbsp;(10:18 pm local time) a magnitude 6.8 earthquake struck the southern end of Cascadia subduction zone. The epicentre location of the earthquake was about 50 km west of the California coast. During the subsequent few hours many aftershocks followed in the same area (see map).</p> <div class="caption featured-media"><a href="/sites/default/files/images/pages/data/20140310_EQ_Tectonics.jpg"><img alt="Map of earthquake and aftershock locations." src="/sites/default/files/images/pages/data/20140310_EQ_Tectonics.jpg" /></a> <p>This map shows the location of the main shock and aftershocks at the Mendocino Triple Junction between the North America, Pacific and Gorda tectonic plates.</p> </div> <p>Ocean Networks Canada's NEPTUNE observatory is about 900 km to the north, and its seismometers in Cascadia Basin, Barkley Canyon and Clayoquot Slope recorded the powerful main shock as well as some of the larger (up to magnitude 4.6) aftershocks about 2 minutes after the event (see seismic recordings below).</p> <div class="caption featured-media"><a href="/sites/default/files/images/pages/data/2014-03-10T05.18.13.43_Mw_40.8287_-125.1338.1_cropped.jpg"><img alt="Seismic traces from 10 March 2014." src="/sites/default/files/images/pages/data/2014-03-10T05.18.13.43_Mw_40.8287_-125.1338.1.JPEG" /></a> <p>NEPTUNE seismic recordings of the 10 March 2014 earthquake. Three components, North (HHN), East (HHE) and Vertical(HHZ) of 3 seismometers show the various earthquake signals arriving at different times. The top 3 traces were recorded by the ocean bottom seismometer in Cascadia Basin; the second set of 3 traces are from the Barkley Canyon seismometer and the lowest 3 traces are from the seismometer at Clayoquot Slope&nbsp; The green bar indicates the origin time of the main shock; about 2 minutes later the fast travelling P-waves (indicated by the red bars) arrive at the NEPTUNE stations, and almost 2 minutes later the S-waves arrive (indicated by the yellow bars), immediately followed by low-frequency surface wave shaking. About 10 minutes after the main shock, high frequency water sound arrives, as clearly visible in the top two panels. (Click to enlarge.)</p> </div> <p>The southern end of the Cascadia subduction zone terminates at the northern end of the San Andreas fault, meeting at the Mendocino triple junction between three tectonic plates, the North American plate in the east, the Pacific plate in the south, and the Gorda plate to the north. The San Andreas fault zone compensates mostly the lateral motion between the North American and the Pacific plate, whereas the Cascadia subduction thrust fault takes up the motion of the Juan de Fuca plate going down (subducting) below North America.</p> <p>The 10 March&nbsp;earthquake occurred at a depth of around 16.6 km, and its fault mechanism was taking up mostly lateral motion from the interplay between the Pacific and the Gorda plate. It was not a subduction thrust earthquake and therefore did not generate&nbsp;any tsunami. However, as every earthquake redistributes&nbsp;tectonic stresses in the area (hence the many aftershocks), we will keep an extra eye out for any other seismicity in that region.</p> </div></div></div><section class="field field-name-field-article-tags field-type-taxonomy-term-reference field-label-above view-mode-rss"><h2 class="field-label">Tags:&nbsp;</h2><ul class="field-items"><li class="field-item even"><a href="/article-tags/earthquake" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">earthquake</a></li><li class="field-item odd"><a href="/article-tags/seismometer" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">seismometer</a></li><li class="field-item even"><a href="/article-tags/subduction" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">subduction</a></li><li class="field-item odd"><a href="/article-tags/cascadia-subduction-zone" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">Cascadia subduction zone</a></li><li class="field-item even"><a href="/article-tags/aftershock" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">aftershock</a></li><li class="field-item odd"><a href="/article-tags/triple-junction" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">triple junction</a></li><li class="field-item even"><a href="/article-tags/ocean-bottom-seismometer" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">Ocean Bottom Seismometer</a></li><li class="field-item odd"><a href="/article-tags/p-waves" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">P-waves</a></li><li class="field-item even"><a href="/article-tags/s-waves" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">S-waves</a></li><li class="field-item odd"><a href="/article-tags/surface-waves" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">surface waves</a></li><li class="field-item even"><a href="/article-tags/tectonics" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">tectonics</a></li></ul></section><section class="field field-name-field-categories field-type-taxonomy-term-reference field-label-above view-mode-rss"><h2 class="field-label">Categories:&nbsp;</h2><ul class="field-items"><li class="field-item even"><a href="/article-categories/data-highlights" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">Data Highlights</a></li></ul></section><span property="dc:title" content="Northern California Earthquake Strikes Southern Cascadia Subduction Zone" class="rdf-meta"></span> Mon, 10 Mar 2014 16:26:38 +0000 dwowens@uvic.ca 3434 at https://www.oceannetworks.ca https://www.oceannetworks.ca/northern-california-earthquake-strikes-southern-cascadia-subduction-zone#comments Negligible Tsunami From Alaska Earthquake https://www.oceannetworks.ca/negligible-tsunami-alaska-earthquake <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden view-mode-rss"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even" property="content:encoded"><p>A strong <a href="http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/usc000ejqv#summary">magnitude 7.5 earthquake</a> struck west of Craig, Alaska at 12:58AM PST, 5 January 2013. Tsunami warning and alerts were issued for a broad section of the Alaskan and Canadian coastline, but no damaging waves were generated. According to the USGS, this earthquake was likely "related to that Haida Gwaii earthquake three months previously, and is an expression of deformation along the same plate boundary system."</p> <p><a class="colorbox" href="/sites/default/files/images/pages/data/5jan2013_aftershocks_0.jpg" title="Aftershocks recorded in the first 11 hours following the earthquake, 5 Jan 2013."><img alt="Aftershocks recorded in the first 11 hours following the earthquake, 5 Jan 2013." class="featured-media" src="/sites/default/files/images/pages/data/5jan2013_aftershocks_0.jpg" title="Aftershocks. (Click to enlarge.)" /> </a></p> <p>The following plots show tide data from Port Alexander, AK (upper-right) and pressure data (lower-left) from Ocean Networks Canada CORK and bottom pressure recorder instruments at three stations on our network. Tide data indicate a crest-to-trough wave amplitudes of 20-30 cm at Port Alexander, with the initial waves arriving 41 minutes after the earthquake. The pressure plots show strong shaking at the seafloor (indicated by the blue areas) at all three instrument locations. The red lines within the blue areas are low-pass filtered versions of the blue lines (only signals with periods longer than about a minute are shown). Therefore, the relatively high frequency ground shaking and microseismic noise generated by ocean swells do not show up on the redline, but tsunami waves with a period of 10-20 minutes, if present, should be indicated by the red line. A tsunami was not detected by Ocean Networks Canada scientists who examined these data.</p> <p><a class="colorbox" href="/sites/default/files/images/pages/data/overview_map_with_siesmic_and_tide_data_0.jpg" title="Overview map with tide and pressure data, 5 Jan 2013."><img alt="Overview map with tide and pressure data, 5 Jan 2013." class="featured-media" src="/sites/default/files/images/pages/data/overview_map_with_siesmic_and_tide_data_0.jpg" title="Overview Map. (Click to enlarge.)" /> </a></p> <p>The tsunami generated by this earthquake was not nearly as large and devastating as those that struck Sri Lanka, Indonesia and Japan in recent years, because it likely occurred on a strike-slip (lateral) fault. Vertical displacement for strike-slip earthquakes is typically much less than may be expected from a major <a href="http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/glossary/?term=subduction">subduction</a> earthquake. The following short video illustrates the distinction between strike-slip and subduction earthquakes.</p> <p><iframe src="http://www.youtube.com/embed/JDdGZM5JOfA?rel=1&amp;autoplay=0&amp;wmode=opaque" width="400" height="250" class="video-filter video-youtube vf-jddgzm5jofa" frameborder="0"></iframe></p> <p>For scientists like those at the Pacific Geoscience Centre and other institutions studying tsunami propagation in the northeast Pacific, this event will provide valuable insights.</p> </div></div></div><section class="field field-name-field-article-tags field-type-taxonomy-term-reference field-label-above view-mode-rss"><h2 class="field-label">Tags:&nbsp;</h2><ul class="field-items"><li class="field-item even"><a href="/article-tags/earthquake" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">earthquake</a></li><li class="field-item odd"><a href="/article-tags/tsunami" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">tsunami</a></li><li class="field-item even"><a href="/article-tags/geosciences" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">geosciences</a></li><li class="field-item odd"><a href="/article-tags/alaska" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">alaska</a></li><li class="field-item even"><a href="/article-tags/subduction" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">subduction</a></li><li class="field-item odd"><a href="/article-tags/strike-slip" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">strike-slip</a></li><li class="field-item even"><a href="/article-tags/tectonics" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">tectonics</a></li></ul></section><section class="field field-name-field-categories field-type-taxonomy-term-reference field-label-above view-mode-rss"><h2 class="field-label">Categories:&nbsp;</h2><ul class="field-items"><li class="field-item even"><a href="/article-categories/data-highlights" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">Data Highlights</a></li><li class="field-item odd"><a href="/article-categories/news-stories" typeof="skos:Concept" property="rdfs:label skos:prefLabel" datatype="">News Stories</a></li></ul></section><span property="dc:title" content="Negligible Tsunami From Alaska Earthquake" class="rdf-meta"></span> Sat, 05 Jan 2013 08:00:00 +0000 dwowens@uvic.ca 61 at https://www.oceannetworks.ca https://www.oceannetworks.ca/negligible-tsunami-alaska-earthquake#comments